The grapes, harvested strictly by hand, are transported to Bins (large plastic cases) with a capacity of about 300 kg.
The capacity is kept low because in this way you do not have large masses of grapes that during transport can crush, warm up and begin unwanted fermentations before they can arrive in the cellar.
In fact, in a traditional trailer there can be between 3000 and 10000 kg of grapes, which puts considerable pressure on the grapes at the bottom, compromising their quality.
The second reason is of a practical nature, in fact bins can easily be stacked on each other waiting to be processed, so even in cellars with smaller sizes large masses of grapes can be managed.
The bins are overturned inside a beam by a forklift. Through a conveyor belt the grapes are carried in a destemming machine.
The grapes, deprived of the shave, are then sent with a pump to the presses.
The presses are pneumatic, inside there is an inner tube that, with compressed air, softly squeezes the grapes against the inner walls of the press causing the juice to leak out.
The must thus obtained is put in large steel tanks, where primary fermentation begins.
Fermentation lasts about 2 weeks, the temperature is constantly controlled and maintained at 18 °C.
Once the fermentation is finished, there is a still wine (not sparkling) that represents the basis for subsequent processing.
The wine is filtered and stored in tanks with a controlled temperature at 10°C for perfect storage.
Sparkling wine production is the processing that allows to obtain a sparkling wine starting from the basic still wine obtained in the previous vinification.
This operation, in order to have an always fresh product, is carried out several times and at different times throughout the year.
Special tanks called “Autoclaves” are used.
These tanks differ from others because they are built to withstand high pressures.
They are also equipped with “agitators” that serve to continuously stir the wine inside.
The base wine is put inside these autoclaves together with carefully selected yeasts.
Thus starts a second fermentation completely similar to that that that takes place during vinification.
The difference is that the carbon dioxide that is naturally produced by yeasts during the transformation of sugars into alcohol, in this case, becomes trapped inside the tank creating bubbles.
It is essential that this phase takes place slowly since the slower fermentation makes the smaller and “creamy” bubbles of the future sparkling wine.
Every day, in fact, the amount of sugars transformed, is analyzed and on the basis of the results the temperature is lowered to slow down the fermentation.
The duration of such a process is about 2 months, and the temperature varies according to the behavior of the yeasts.
At the beginning you have about 18°C and at the end you arrive with a temperature from 13 to 16°C.
At the end of fermentation, the yeasts are separated through a centrifuge and the product is thus ready for the bottle.
After taking foam, the wine is ready for bottling.
From the autoclave it passes to the bottling machine through a special filter that separates the last possible impurities.
In order to ensure that the sparkling wine does not lose its bubbles, bottling takes place at a very low temperature (-3°C), in addition the bottling machine (isobaric type), before filling, brings the bottle to the same pressure that is in the autoclave, so that the wine does not lose the precious bubbles acquired previously.